SQL/PSM Basics

Explore fundamental concepts of Procedural SQL (SQL/PSM or SQL/Persistent Stored Modules) with MariaDB in iPython notebook

77 Participants 30 Minutes Beginner

In this lab, you will explore the fundamentals of procedural SQL programming for MariaDB. Procedural SQL allows you to write stored procedures, functions, and triggers in MariaDB. This programming paradigm brings greater flexibility and power to your database operations by enabling you to encapsulate complex logic within the database itself. You'll learn the basics of procedural SQL, including program structure, conditional statements, loops, and exception handling.



- Basic knowledge of SQL and database concepts.

- You can also checkout our “SQL Basics” lab to gain basic understanding of SQL and MariaDB.


Introduction to Procedural SQL

Procedural SQL enhances the capabilities of databases by allowing developers to encapsulate complex logic within the database itself. This is significant because:

1. Data Integrity: By centralizing the logic within the database, you can ensure data consistency and integrity. For example, you can use procedures to enforce business rules during data modification.

2. Security: Procedures and functions provide controlled access to data, enhancing security by limiting direct access to tables.

3. Maintainability: Procedural SQL promotes maintainability by isolating database-related logic from application code. This separation of concerns makes it easier to update and maintain the database layer.


Beneficial Scenarios:

Procedural SQL is beneficial in various scenarios:

1. Business Rules: You can use it to enforce complex business rules. For instance, in an e-commerce platform, you can create a procedure to calculate discounts based on order value.

2. Data Validation: Procedural SQL can validate data before insertion, ensuring that data adheres to specified rules.

3. Complex Queries: It's useful for encapsulating complex queries, which can simplify application code.


Program Structure

A procedural SQL program has a structured format that includes:

Header Section: This section specifies the procedure or function name, input parameters, and return values. It provides an interface for calling the program.

Main Body: This is where the actual SQL code is placed. It contains the logic to perform tasks. The code is enclosed within BEGIN and END blocks.

Understanding program structure is essential for organizing your code effectively and making it more readable and maintainable.


Conditional Statements (IF-ELSE)

Conditional statements in procedural SQL (e.g., IF-ELSE) are vital for making decisions based on conditions. These statements enable you to:

  1. Execute different blocks of code based on the values of variables or inputs.

  2. Control the flow of execution within stored procedures or functions.

  3. Conditional logic is essential for implementing branching behavior in your database logic, allowing you to respond to varying conditions.


Loops (WHILE and FOR)

Loops are crucial for iterative tasks in procedural SQL. There are two primary loop types:

WHILE Loop: Repeatedly executes a block of code as long as a specified condition is true. It's useful for tasks where you need to iterate an unknown number of times.

FOR Loop: Iterates over a range of values (e.g., numbers or records). It's valuable for tasks that involve a known number of iterations.

Loops are fundamental for repetitive operations, such as data processing or record traversal.


Importance of Procedural SQL:

Procedural SQL is crucial in database development for the following reasons:

1. Encapsulation of Logic: Procedural SQL allows you to encapsulate complex logic within the database. This promotes data integrity, security, and maintainability by centralizing the code responsible for data manipulation.

2. Reusability: Stored procedures and functions can be reused across different parts of the application, reducing code duplication and promoting consistency.

3. Performance Optimization: Procedural SQL can optimize database operations by reducing the volume of data transferred between the application and the database server. This is especially important for data-intensive applications.

4. Security: Stored procedures can enforce security by controlling access to data through well-defined interfaces.

5. Error Handling: Procedural SQL enables you to handle errors and exceptions in a controlled and consistent manner, improving the reliability of database operations.

6. Maintainability: Centralized logic within the database is easier to maintain and update, reducing the risk of data inconsistencies and errors.



In this lab, you’ll learn the essentials of procedural SQL programming for MariaDB. This knowledge is valuable for anyone working with databases, as it allows you to create efficient, secure, and maintainable database-driven applications. Procedural SQL empowers you to leverage the full potential of your database system and enhances your ability to develop robust and performant software solutions.


SQL/PSM Basics


Have a doubt? Got stuck somewhere?



Related Labs


Advanced Queries and Joins


  • 30 m
  • Advance
  • 298
Learn advanced SQL queries and joins with MariaDB server and client

NoSQL Basics


  • 30 m
  • Beginner
  • 140
Learn NoSQL basic concepts, commands and queries with MongoDB server and client

Mongo Express Basics


  • 30 m
  • Beginner
  • 275
Learn to use Mongo Express web-based admin interface to working with MongoDB database

PHPMyAdmin Basics


  • 30 m
  • Beginner
  • 159
Learn how PHPMyAdmin makes it easy to manage and work with SQL databases